By Kaveh Askari,Scott Curtis,Frank Gray,Louis Pelletier,Tami Williams,Joshua Yumibe
In the years prior to the 1st global struggle, showmen, marketers, educators, and scientists used magic lanterns and cinematographs in lots of contexts and plenty of venues. To hire those silent reveal applied sciences to convey varied and intricate courses often demanded audio accompaniment, making a functionality of either sound and photo. those indicates may well contain stay song, music, lectures, narration, and synchronized sound results supplied by way of any to be had party—projectionist, neighborhood expertise, accompanist or behind the curtain crew—and might usually borrow suggestions from shadow performs and tableaux vivants. The performances weren't proof against the effect of social and cultural forces, reminiscent of censorship or reform pursuits. This number of essays considers the ways that assorted visible practices performed on the flip of the 20 th century formed performances on and beside the screen.